By Aquaprox (auth.)
Many cooling platforms use water as cooling medium. they're present in public constructions, business construction structures or energy crops. virtually each cooling procedure utilizing water is degraded via deposition, corrosion and microbiological fouling.
This ebook identifies the complete bunch of difficulties because of water cooling structures and proposes particular suggestions to them all. The authors have an services of over twenty years fixing cooling water difficulties. during this ebook, they propose all practitioners which have to plan, purchase or function cooling systems.
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In the softening cycle, the calcium ion prevails and it is the first reaction that occurs. In the regeneration cycle, the sodium ion or hydrogen ion prevails, and it is the second reaction that occurs. Given the fact that the regeneration necessitates the presence of an excess of salt, a given extent of hardness can not be removed with the same amount of salt consumed. 5 kg of NaCl per kg of CaCO3 removed. The water which supplies the ion exchange units should not contain suspended solides. Only calcium and magnesium are removed and the total percentage of dissolved solids remains the same.
019 Mg Concentration of free CO2 in ppm MA = total alkalinity expressed in ppm of CaCO3 Mg = ppm of magnesium expressed in Mg. Concentration of CO2 is read on the diagram of the page 21. Let us remind that the carbonate hardness is equal to: total hardness — total alkalinity (TH — MA). 2 Equipment Used It consists of solid-liquid contact clarifiers so as to ensure a correct growth of the crystals before the settling stage. Thus, the water is brought into tight contact with the crystals’ suspension.
There are two kinds of deposit risks / - mineral deposit: calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate and strontium sulfates, tri-calcium phosphate, silica in different forms. - biological fouling (bio-fouling), explained by the presence of suspended solids in the make-up water. Good use of installation leads to setting up the following: - preventive treatments, to prevent the risks of mineral and biological deposits; - curative treatments (cleaning), whose frequency will be such that the reversibility of the exchange properties will be assured.