By Cyrille Fijnaut, Letizia Paoli
This quantity represents the 1st try and systematically evaluate organised crime techniques, in addition to old and modern styles and keep an eye on rules in 13 ecu international locations. those contain seven ‘old’ european Member States, ‘new’ participants, a candidate state, and 3 non-EU nations. according to a standardised examine protocol, thirty-three specialists from assorted felony and social disciplines supply perception via exact kingdom reviews. in this foundation, the editors examine organised crime styles and guidelines in Europe and determine ecu tasks opposed to organised crime.
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Additional resources for Organised Crime in Europe: Concepts, Patterns and Control Policies in the European Union and Beyond (Studies of Organized Crime)
In other words, as we will see in more detail in the following pages, the concept of organised crime inconsistently incorporates the following two notions: a) the provision of illegal goods and services; b) a criminal organisation, understood as a large-scale entity primarily engaged in illegal activities with a well-deﬁned collective identity and subdivision of work among its members. Despite the common ambiguities of the American and European discourse on organised crime, there is a clear temporal mismatch.
After rejecting a proposal to outlaw membership of La Cosa Nostra,1 Congress passed the Racketeer Inﬂuenced and Corrupted Organisations (RICO) statute in 1970 with an extremely 1 26 See United States Senate Bill 2187, 89th Congress and United States Senate Bill 678, 90th Congress. Introduction to Part I broad underlying concept of organised crime (Aktinson, 1978). Likewise, many state commissions on organised crime, established in response to the national debate, at best paid lip-service to the concept of La Cosa Nostra as an all-encompassing criminal organisation.
Only recently, as southern maﬁa groups have become less visible and traditional anti-maﬁa investigations have waned, some practitioners and scholars have not been able to resist the temptation of applying Article 416bis and its related special investigative powers to the so-called nuove maﬁe or maﬁe etniche (Massari and Becucci, 2001). With these labels, one usually points out foreign criminal groups, which are, however, much looser, less durable and dangerous than the original maﬁa associations of southern Italy.