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F. Hypodermoclysis - into subcutaneous, loose tissues such as the thighs, buttocks, breasts, under loose skin. This method can be used after shock, hemorrhage or diarrhea when large volumes of fluids might have to be restored quickly. The temperature of the materials to be injected as well as ionic strength are very important. 5. Other Modes of Drug Delivery Including Some Which Are Experimental and Promising a. Monoclonal antibodies are homogeneous proteins related to the antibodies which are the products of our body's own natural protective chemistry, the immune system.

Let us for a moment consider the enzymes responsible for oxidation, the oxidases. Some are very specific as to the type of substrate which they will oxidize; others are relatively nonspecific, such as the mixed function oxidases; while some have a limited functional specificity such as monoamine oxidase, diamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase. Notice that the specific name for each enzyme will related in some way to its substrate. All oxidases need to have a cofactor to which electrons can be transferred.

For example, the other fractions of the liver homogenate, the brain (see the Section on the blood-brain barrier), blood plasma, lungs, intestines, kidneys, and the skin all contain nonmicrosomal enzymes which can begin the transformation of lipophilic materials into lipophobic ones. 2. General Reactions The enzymatically catalyzed reactions of biotransformation can be categorized as two general types: nonsynthetic and synthetic (or conjugative). The nonsynthetic are further delineated as oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis.

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