By Norman Polmar
Submarines had a necessary, if usually unheralded, function within the superpower navies in the course of the chilly warfare. Their crews performed intelligence-collection operations, sought out and stood able to spoil opposing submarines, and, from the early Nineteen Sixties, threatened missile assaults on their adversary’s place of origin, delivering in lots of respects the main survivable nuclear deterrent of the chilly conflict. For either East and West, the fashionable submarine originated in German U-boat designs received on the finish of global warfare II. even supposing having fun with the same know-how base, through the Nineties the superpowers had created submarine fleets of considerably varied designs and services. Written in collaboration with the previous Soviet submarine layout bureaus, Norman Polmar and okay. J. Moore authoritatively show during this landmark examine how differing submarine missions, antisubmarine priorities, degrees of technical competence, and ways to submarine layout businesses and administration brought on the divergence.
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Extra resources for Cold War Submarines: The Design and Construction of U.S. and Soviet Submarines, 1945-2001
S. S. S. Navy in the conversion of high-speed submarines. Based on intelligence reports of German development of the Type XXI and closed-cycle undersea craft, in 1944 the British began the conversion of eight S-class submarines to high-speed underwater targets to train ASW forces. First was HMS Seraph. 8 knots in her original configuration. S. fleet boats were undertaken for a variety of specialized roles as the submarine community searched for missions in the postwar environment: cargo (designated SSA/ASSA), guided missile (SSG), hunter-killer (SSK), oiler (SSO/ASSO), radar picket (SSR), various research roles (AGSS), and troop transport (SSP/ASSP).
HTS provided a yield strength of about 50,000 pounds per square inch. 3 On an operational basis the value of the depth increase was to evade an enemy depth charge attack, as depth charges were preset to detonate at a specific depth. The stronger hull could help reduce the effects of other ASW weapons—hedgehogs and acoustic homing torpedoes. And, all weapons took more time to reach greater depths. The fleet submarine Chopper (SS 342), in 1969, made an uncontrolled dive off Cuba. The submarine’s bow reached a depth of 1,050 feet (320 m); she was able to make it back to the surface.
Sixty-two submarines of wartime programs were completed after the war. TABLE 2-2 Soviet War Programs Completed, August 1945–1951 Units Type Series* First Unit Displacement** 7 1 53 1 S Shch M*** Project IX-bis X-bis XV 95 1939 1939 1943 1946 856/1,090 tons 593/705 tons 283/350 tons —/102 tons Notes: * bis indicates modification to basic design. ** Surface/submerged displacement. *** Referred to as Malyutka (“small”) submarines. The rehabilitation of the Soviet shipbuilding industry had been given high priority by Soviet dictator Josef Stalin in the postwar period.