Download Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks by Michael Woods PDF

By Michael Woods

Were you aware . . .Ancient cultures measured time properly with water clocks? An engineer within the first century B.C. designed an odometer to calculate distance traveled? humans computed the 1st values of pi approximately 4 thousand years in the past? Computing know-how is as previous as human society itself. the 1st people on the earth used easy computing talents. They counted by means of carving tally marks in bone. They used physique components and easy instruments to degree. Over the centuries, old peoples discovered extra approximately computing. humans within the old heart East used scales to degree items for buying and selling. the traditional Egyptians wrote textbooks together with multiplication and department difficulties. the traditional chinese language built an abacus for fast calculations. old Greeks made advances in geometry. What varieties of instruments and methods did historical mathematicians use? Which in their innovations and discoveries have stood the attempt of time? and the way did the ancients set the degree for our personal sleek computing? study extra in old Computing know-how.

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Extra info for Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks (Technology in Ancient Cultures)

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H o w M u c h I s En o u g h ? In ancient Egypt, scribes were important people. They kept records, figured taxes, managed building projects, and helped the military determine how much food and equipment it needed. The Rhind and Moscow papyruses explained how to solve the kinds of problems that scribes would encounter in their work. The books had lessons on measuring the area of fields, adding up numbers of bricks, and calculating the amount of bread and beer needed to feed construction workers.

A 260-day sacred calendar kept track of which Aztec gods ruled over the days and weeks. This was the tonalpohualli. A 365-day calendar, the xiupohualli, measured the solar year. It kept track of seasons. The start of these two calendars matched up just once every fifty-two years. This stretch of 18,980 days, or fifty-two years, made up the third Aztec calendar. In 1790 workers making repairs on the central square in Mexico City unearthed a huge, sculpted circular stone known as the Sun Stone. They found it among the ruins of Tenochtitlán beneath the modern city.

Six functions, or ratios, are at the heart of this branch of mathematics. They are used to determine the sizes of the sides and angles of triangles. One of these six functions is called sine. An ancient Hindu mathematician, Aryabhata the Elder, computed the first sine tables. These lists showed the value of sine for angles of many sizes. The tables let mathematicians do trigonometry quickly, without stopping to figure out the sine for each angle. d. 499. In addition to trigonometry, the book included formulas and rules for algebra, geometry, and arithmetic.

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