By Gould R.F. (ed.)
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The reach-averaged calculation is made by summing up individual calculations along the channel: the sum of fluxes from channel to sediment is then compared with the net flux across the channel bed to compute the reach-averaged hyporheic flux, qh" The typical result is that the hyporheic component of streambed flux, q~, is found to be considerably larger than the groundwater component, q L (Harvey and Bencala, 1993). Figure 3B shows that water fluxes into hyporheic zones decrease during the wet season, due to the opposing force of higher groundwater levels on the lower hill slope.
How long an upstream mixing reach is need- 1. Quantifying Hydrologic Interactions 33 ed? 23du* where d is channel depth and u* is the shear velocity), and [3 is a constant in the range of 1-10 for rough channels. Clearly Eq. (12) can only serve as a rough guideline because of the considerable uncertainty in the constant [3. The other major design concern is the length of the experimental reach. Equation (11) for DaI can sometimes be used to help design an experiment with a good chance of substantially improving the estimates of storage processes.
In that stream type, there is relatively slow flow in a steep channel (---5% slope) through pools and riffles with coarse sediment (cobbles and gravel with fine gravel and welbsorted sands intermixed). The second representative stream type can be described as a mountain valley stream. 5% slope) through a gravel or sand-bed stream without major pools and riffles. There are some significant meanders and some braiding of subchannels in the second stream type, and sand bars and cobbles are the primary roughness units in that stream type.