By Neil Hopper Borden
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Additional resources for Advertising, text and cases
Changing consumption patterns com ing from a rapidly changing world are stronger than their efforts to mold and shape consumers’ habits. Their advertising may serve to slow down a more rapid shift from the product, but it cannot prevent it. One investigation of trends of purchase of consumer goods revealed that out of 34 products, 20 classes of goods showed upward trends, 11 downward, and 3 neither up nor down. Back of all such trends fie basic changes in the character of the population and its way of living: changes in urban distribution, in occupation, in age distribution, in sex distribution, in family size, in housing, in education, and in modes of transportation and communication.
Exhibit 3 gives data indicating the trend in national income from 1929 to 1947 and the shares of that income earned by employees, busi ness and professional people, and farmers. The changing income levels of these various groups in recent years have had a marked effect on their relative potentialities as markets for various products. Exhibit 4 shows the distribution of total United States families and individuals by income groups for four selected years between 1935 and 1947. It will be noted that the distribution shifted markedly upward during this period.
They may be stated as follows: 1. There must be a correct appraisal of what advertising is likely to accomplish in a particular operating formula. Alternative methods must be appraised. 2. Effective use depends upon skillful building of advertisements correctly placed. Even a potentially profitable use of advertising can be come unprofitable if the advertising space or radio time purchased is not skillfully and effectively employed to accomplish desired objectives. Effective execution requires a search for— a) Selling appeals most likely to influence those to whom advertisements are addressed b) Techniques for effectively presenting the appeals to create the desired impression or to induce the desired action c) The combination of size and frequency of advertisements which will pro duce the maximum effect from an expenditure d) The most efficient media available, as judged on a basis of their cost in relation to their influence upon those addressed 3.