By Nicusor Iftimia, William R. Brugge, Daniel X. Hammer
This e-book presents scholars, academics, researchers and clinicians with a robust and demonstrated resource of data on complex optical applied sciences that exhibit actual promise of being translated to medical use.
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Extra info for Advances in Optical Imaging for Clinical Medicine (Wiley Series in Biomedical Engineering and Multi-Disciplinary Integrated Systems)
Modern SPECT equipment is available with an integrated x-ray CT scanner. Molecular imaging with SPECT/CT seems to be a complete reversal of traditional SPECT imaging, because newly developed SPECT tracers are target speciﬁc. , for tumor imaging, infection (leukocyte) imaging, thyroid imaging, bone imaging, cardiac imaging, brain imaging] . It is interesting to compare brieﬂy the two main techniques used in nuclear medicine. PET offers imaging characteristics substantially superior to those of SPECT, resulting in higher diagnostic accuracy.
These appear as dark lines that radiate away from sharp corners. 2. Partial volume effect. This appears as “blurring” over sharp edges. , cartilage). 3. Noise artifact. This appears as graining on the image and is caused by a low signal/noise ratio. This occurs most commonly when a thin slice is used. 4. Motion artifact. This is seen as blurring and/or streaking, which is caused by movement of the object being imaged. DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES 21 5. Beam hardening. This can give a “cupped” appearance.
2 CT, MR, and PET Imaging in External Beam Radiation Therapy External beam radiation therapy is a treatment approach that has been used in the radiation oncology ﬁeld since the discovery of x-rays. The radiation beams (electrons or photons) are currently generated in linear accelerator (LINAC) machines. Electrons are extracted from a metallic ﬁlament by thermionic emission and then accelerated in a waveguide up to a desired energy. Magnetic ﬁelds are used for beam stirring. In modern multienergy machines, the electron beam that exits the horizontal waveguide is bent vertically down (90 or 270◦ ) in a magnetic ﬁeld, then hits a scattering foil used to ﬂatten the cross-sectional beam proﬁle, which otherwise will have a Gaussian-like shape.