By Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Berdanier, Lynnette A.; Zempleni, Janos
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Extra resources for Advanced Nutrition : Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism
The carbon skeletons of the deaminated amino acids can either be oxidized for energy or used to synthesize body fat or used to synthesize glucose (gluconeogenesis). The latter process would only use a very small number of these carbon skeletons. 78 moles glucose + 3 moles palmitate + 10 moles ATP → 1 mole tripalmitin 12 Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism Protein synthesis is likewise very expensive energetically. Each amino acid that is incorporated into a polypeptide chain requires an ATP for its activation.
The more active a person is, the more oxygen is needed for the oxidation of metabolic fuel by the muscle. Trained athletes are more efficient in their use of metabolic fuels than are nontrained, sedentary individuals. Training involves an increase in use of specific muscle groups as well as an increase in lung and heart action. Muscle contraction, which is usually supported by the oxidation of glucose (from blood glucose or glycogen breakdown) in the sedentary person, can use fatty acids as fuel after training.
Each amino acid that is incorporated into a polypeptide chain requires an ATP for its activation. In a protein containing many hundred amino acids, the requirement for ATP is enormous. ATP is also required for the synthesis of the mRNA coded for the protein being synthesized. Because protein synthesis is so energy dependent, the energy requirement to support growth (protein synthesis) can be quite large. Using dietary protein for body protein synthesis can be either very efficient or very inefficient, depending on the amino acid content of the diet and the body proteins being synthesized.