By John Henderson
Ernest Starling (1866-1927) used to be pre-eminent within the golden age of British body structure. His identify is mostly linked to his legislations of the center, yet his discovery of secretin (the first hormone whose mode of motion was once defined) and his paintings on capillaries have been extra vital contributions. He coined the observe 'hormone' 100 years in the past. His research of capillary functionality confirmed that equivalent and opposite forces flow around the capillary wall--an outward (hydrostatic) strength and an inward (osmotic) strength derived from plasma proteins. Starlings contributions comprise: *Developing the "Frank-Starling legislations of the Heart," provided in 1915 and changed in 1919. *The Starling equation, describing fluid shifts within the physique (1896) *The discovery of secretin, the 1st hormone, with Bayliss (1902) and the creation of the concept that of hormones (1905). Read more...
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Extra resources for A life of Ernest Starling
Some good historical reviews of the whole topic have been published, such as H. Barcroft (1976) and Michel (1977). Heidenhain's experiments included the effects of obstructing (occluding) large blood vessels on thoracic duct lymph flow. The vessels that he occluded were the aorta, inferior vena cava, and the portal vein. Obstructing the aorta produced an immediate drop in arterial pressure, as one would expect, but had little effect on lymph flow. ). Obstructing the portal vein produced a small fall in arterial blood pressure and an increase in lymph flow.
Starling's main argument in this paper involves the increase in urine flow (diuresis) resulting from injecting glucose into the circulation. By producing glucose diuresis in anesthetized dogs, he lowered the osmotic pressure of urine to that of plasma. He argues that this can only occur if urine is formed at the glomerulus by filtration alone. It comes as no surprise to learn that Heidenhain had previously proposed an active process to occur at the glomerulus (analogous to his proposed active secretion by capillaries in the formation of lymph).
That enabled h i m to m e a s u r e the osmotic activity of serum. T h e osmometers were small glass bells having a m o u t h covered with a piece of peritoneal m e m b r a n e . Each bell h a d two tubes at the o t h e r e n d , o n e for filling the bell with serum; the o t h e r for c o n n e c t i o n with a mercury m a n o m e t e r . 03% saline (slightly m o r e osmotically active t h a n serum) a n d left for several days. After 3 days the height of the c o l u m n h a d stabilized at 30-40 m m Hg; h e h a d d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e m o v e m e n t of water p r o d u c e d by a c o n c e n t r a t i o n gradient of plasma proteins.