By Glenn D. Rennels M.D., Ph.D. (auth.)
As study on specialist platforms has moved good into its moment decade, it has turn into well known to quote the constraints of the phenomenologic or associational method of wisdom illustration that was once standard of first iteration structures. for instance, the Internist-1 wisdom base represents explicitly over six hundred ailments, encoding linked affliction manifestations (signs, indicators, actual findings, and lab abnormalities) yet failing to house the explanations that these findings could be found in the affliction [Miller, R. A. 82]. in recent times Pople has sought so as to add special causal types to the data base in a revised model of this system referred to as CADUCEUS [Pople 82]. equally, a standard construction rule within the MYCIN approach states inferences that could be drawn whilst particular stipulations are discovered to be precise [Buchanan 84], however the underlying factors for such relationships aren't encoded. Clancey has argued that MYCIN wishes such "supporting wisdom" represented, specially if its wisdom base is for use for educating reasons [Clancey 83]. via the overdue Seventies, synthetic intelligence researchers have been commencing to test with reasoning platforms that used particular mechanistic or causal niodels of the article being analyzed. the most effective early examples have been a application to coach scholars how one can examine digital circuits [Brown eighty two] and a approach for diagnosing issues of mechanical units [Rieger 76].
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Additional info for A Computational Model of Reasoning from the Clinical Literature
Although you and many other physicians may think the modifications reasonable, your modified therapy has not been tested and this adds uncertainty to the expected outcome. [ibid] As can be seen from these excerpts, the advice is general. Indeed, without knowing the precise medical question being asked and the details of the study being examined, the most one can do is to offer general guidelines to the practicing physician. 32 Background Another useful book on this topic is Coping with the Biomedical Literature [Warren 81].
He itemizes a checklist of items which might be used to assess the methodological quality of a randomized controlled trial. The author provides an explicit algorithm which others might use: the criteria for a successful "score" on each item are listed. There is no claim for a theoretical basis to the scoring: it is empirical, based on the expert opinion of biostatisticians. Another source for guidelines to assessing biostatistical methodology is Statistics in Medicine [Colton 74], especially the chapter entitled "Critical Reading of the Medical Literature".
Within the classification scheme of [Bailar 84b], the breast cancer studies represented in Roundsman's knowledge base are longitudinal, prospective, studies o( deliberate intervention (see Table 2-1). If computer-based representations of other classes were sought, somewhat different research issues would probably emerge. Crosssectional studies differ from longitudinal studies in that longitudinal studies are particularly concerned with changes over time. For example, studies of the prevalence of heart disease in hypertensive people would be cross-sectional, whereas a study of the development of heart disease over a time period following intervention (to lower blood pressure) would be a longitudinal study.