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By P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai

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Determination of Iron and Manganese 43 7. Then cool the flasks under the tap water. 8. Dilute the contents in all the flasks to 100 mL with distilled water and mix. Pour the contents into 100 mL Nessler tubes. 9. Match the colour of the sample with that of the colour standards. Note down the concentration of Mn in µg. 10. If the spectrophotometer is used, one distilled water blank has to be prepared along with the colour standards. 11. Measure the absorbance of each solution in a 1cm cell at 525 nm against the reference blank prepared by treating distilled water.

Gravimetric method with drying of residue. 3. Turbidimetric method. 1. Gravimetric Method with Ignition of Residue Principle Sulphate is precipitated in hydrochloric acid medium as barium sulphates by the addition of barium chloride. The precipitation is carried out near the boiling temperature and after a period of digestion the precipitate is filtered; washed with water until free of chlorides, ignited and weighed as barium sulphates. Apparatus 1. Drying oven 2. Desiccator 3. Steam bath 4. Analytical balance 5.

The solution turns wine red in colour. 4. Add the standard EDTA titrant slowly with continuous stirring until the last reddish tinge disappears from the solution. The colour of the solution at the end point is blue under normal conditions. 5. Note down the volume of EDTA added (V1). Observation Sample Trial Volume of no. no. … mg/L V (mL) Determination of Hardness 29 Results Sample no. or description Total hardness in mg/L as CaCO3 Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What is degree of hardness?

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